(Angela Borshchevska, Nataliya Ryshkovska)
Lviv National Medical University named Danila Galitsky, Lviv, Ukraine
Introduction. The change in the social situation of the development of modern children and adolescents is characterized by the destruction of the natural institutions of socialization – the family and the children’s community, the orientation of upbringing to the individualist model, the tendency to restriction of communication between children and peers. All this negatively affects the process of socialization of children, leads to the growth of various forms of social deprivation, including bullling, an increase in the number of children and adolescents of the disadvantaged, isolated in the children’s community. In the last 10-15 years, the problem of child abuse in schools is becoming more and more relevant. In particular, cross-cultural studies in 40 European countries have shown a large spread of frequencies: from 9% of schoolchildren (in Norway) to 45% (in Lithuania) are faced with bullying situations two or more times a month (Rose C.A., Espelage D.L., 2012). According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), from 70 to 80% of adolescents aged 14-15 years, in one form or another, become victims or participants in the bullng. According to the director of the department of the Ministry of Education of L. Samsonova, 109,000 appeals from children and their parents about harassment at school were recorded in 2017 (Kotlyar, 2018).
The urgency of the research of the bulling is due to the fact that the experience of contact with harassment affects the behavior and attitude of all participants, forming their habit of relations of domination / subordination and stable patterns of behavior. The children who practice harassment are used to impunity and more often than their peers demonstrate deviant forms of behavior (fights, theft, vandalism, weapon storage, school absenteeism, the use of psychoactive substances). Among the immediate effects of the bulling are alertness, insomnia, complexity with concentration of attention. Children undergoing a booling, more often than their peers, dropped out of school, were prone to depression and suicidal behavior. Among the remote effects of harassment are loss of confidence, difficulty in communicating and intimate relationships with the opposite sex, low career outcome, difficulties with trust, formation of social anxiety (fear to speak with certain groups of people, for example, with those who shows aggression, fear to speak in public) and generalized anxiety (Siobhan Hugh – Jones, Peter K. Smith, 1999).
Purpose. To investigate the structure of the bulling`s system factors in the Ukrainian context and to generalize strategies of harassment prevention.
Methodology. In the process of work used methods: scientific observation, analysis and synthesis, sociological research.
Bulling is a systemic, multidimensional problem. Its participants are: the family, the school teacher, class, society. Point picking someone or something will not help one. If harassment has already begun in a particular environment, then this means that the environment is viral. So he needs to be cleaned and healed. Numerous videos on the Internet, messages in the media – is an open, explicit form of bulling. It’s horrible and endlessly scary. But much more dangerous are not physical, visible, but hidden forms of persecution. Because there are no complaints about this. It is not put forward as a public inquiry, and, worst of all, it is perceived as an ordinary phenomenon (Alla Kotlyar, 2018).
The problem of detection and diagnostics of bulling in Ukraine at the present stage concerns the following: it is accidental (episodic) character; missing: research programs. relevant questionnaires; no portrait of a victim of persecution has been created; the victim’s experience is not relevant to adults; In children’s homes, boarding schools, special institutions for minors there is an extremely high risk of violence; frequent denial of bulling in educational institutions; lack of competence for a victim survey; Limited experience of applying to specialists (Кihichak, Bоrshchevska, 2018).
The main subsystems for which the change strategy should be directed.
Family level. The psychotype of the child, with which she then “will sound” in school life, is formed up to seven years. Therefore, competent in matters of healthy principles of communication, parents can accordingly carry out the process of education.
The family should create a pillow of safety and support for the child. Parents should teach the child the ability to “give off”. After all, it is a model of communication, which means that when an invasion of the private territory occurs, signals are received in a timely manner about how dangerous it is. And if the communication of the child in the family from the beginning was dangerous, then child gets used to the fact that at any moment the emotional state of the parents can change. And this will be followed by unpredictable punishment. This means that the system that supports child safety is in a state of permanent excitement. And then such a child or adolescent will be in readiness to constantly resist, regardless of quality and intensity of exposure. Or there will be a depletion of protective potential due to the nervous system’s overexcitation.
The following subsystem is a school. School is a hierarchical structure. If the school is dangerous, aggression will necessarily be formed and accumulated. Fear and aggression are always near. Security is also a multi-layered concept.
In school, this is the built safety of the physical body of the child. When both parents and children know that the teacher has no right to touch the body of the child aggressively; that any fights will be stopped immediately.
The family and school are two important subsystems responsible for the child, separated from each other. And it is very important to develop the openness of communications in the middle of these structures and between them. Being in an emotional proximity to an authoritative adult for her, the child learns to feel, including their needs, to sympathize with, protect their limits.
Subsystem is a society.
Bulling is an aggression in its most detectable, malignant form. Previous generations received a message in the process of education: taboo on any manifestation of aggression, including and healthy. Now in our society there are many aggressions. We are infected with the virus of aggression. But aggression is a very significant unpleasant emotion that is part of the structure of emotional and social intelligence. In addition, anger is energy. In order to adapt to the new territory, to critically understand new knowledge, to tell the teacher that you think otherwise, a healthy aggression is necessary.
Conclusions. The situation of the boiling is terrible for all participants. And if you stay only at the level of conflict, the charge that can be directed toward healing will be spent on unnecessary confrontation. This applies to any relationship.
Consequently, society must form the basis of responsibility, mutual respect in relations. It is important to carry and develop a culture of non-violent communication, including, in particular, broad programs of early psychoeducation of parents, training of communicative competences of teachers.
Keywords: bulling, communication, family, system, prevention, disease.
1. Аnzhela Кihichak – Bоrshchevska (2018). Bulling in schools as a factor in mental ill health. Information and Methodological Journal “School” V6 (150), P 8-16.
2. Alla Kotlyar (2018, August 18-23) Bulling. With wide eyes closed. Mirror of the week, Retrieved from https://dt.ua/SOCIUM/buling-z-shiroko-zakritimi-ochima-285910_.html
3. Rose C.A., Espelage D.L. (2012) Risk and protective factors associated with the bulling involvement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal “Behavioral Disorders” V 37 (3),P.133-148
4. Siobhan Hugh – Jones, Peter K. Smith (1999) Self–reports of short-and long-term effects of bulling on children who stammer Goldsmiths? University of London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom. British Journal of Educational Psychology. V 69 (2), P 141-158.